There is a proverb in our country, "A crop of flowers, all rely on the dung to be the home", the "dung" here mainly refers to organic fertilizer. However, in recent years, the proportion of organic fertilizer application has been small, and the amount of chemical fertilizer has increased rapidly. Excessive fertilizers and pesticides are applied to the soil, which increases grain yield to a certain extent, but at the same time leads to serious deterioration of soil conditions, causing soil fertility decline, soil compaction, soil acidification (salinization) and environmental pollution and food. A series of problems such as pollution have constrained the healthy development of China's agriculture. Therefore, in order to achieve sustainable development of agriculture, it is imperative to increase the application of organic fertilizer reasonably. So how do you apply organic fertilizer? The Ministry of Agriculture issued the "Opinions on Deepening the Advancement of Scientific Fertilization Work" and proposed: "Develop and utilize organic fertilizer resources and optimize fertilization structure." In the future, the adjustment of fertilization structure will promote the increase of organic fertilizer application.
The application of organic fertilizer is a necessary means of â€œcultivating land for useâ€. Since the late 1980s, chemical fertilizers, especially chemical nitrogen fertilizers, have been applied too much, leading to problems such as soil acidification, unbalanced supply of nutrients, and decreased soil biological activity. According to the data, 70% of China's farmland is a medium- and low-yield field. The average content of soil organic matter in cultivated land is only about 2%, which is significantly lower than that of 2.5% to 4.5% in developed countries. The number of beneficial nematodes in soil decreases from 3,000 to 5,000 per kg of soil. To 500. The imbalance of soil nutrients is serious, and the poor ecological function of cultivated soil has seriously threatened China's food security.
Rational application of organic fertilizer has a good effect on achieving high yield, high quality and sustainable development. Organic fertilizer contains a variety of nutrients, is a complete fertilizer with a variety of large and micronutrients, and contains active substances such as vitamins. Perennial application of organic fertilizer can renew or improve soil organic matter, and can improve the soil physical and chemical properties. Therefore, in the "Opinions on Deepening the Promotion of Scientific Fertilization Work" issued by the Ministry of Agriculture this year, special emphasis is placed on vigorously developing organic fertilizer resources. According to the "Opinions": By 2015, China will strive to achieve a higher level of scientific fertilization technology, further expand the scope of technology popularization, and improve the fertilization structure. Among them, the organic fertilizer resources will be rationally utilized, the utilization rate of organic fertilizer resources such as human and livestock manure will reach 50%, and the direct returning rate of crop straw will reach more than 35%, and the green manure planting area will be stable and resumed. Increasing the application of organic fertilizer is an effective measure to cultivate land by land, which will also lay a foundation for increasing grain production and ensuring crop quality in China.
At present, the Ministry of Agriculture is also exploring policies to encourage farmers to apply organic fertilizer. Chen Mengshan, a spokesperson for the Ministry of Agriculture and chief economist, once said that China can not only pay attention to the problem of the amount of cultivated land, but also pay more attention to the quality of cultivated land. It is necessary to consider how to vigorously promote the problem of farmers applying organic fertilizer. On the one hand, we must study how to promote the industrialization of organic fertilizer, on the one hand, we must encourage farmers to apply organic fertilizer. However, relative to chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers have a slower effect and higher costs. Policies and measures to encourage farmers to use organic fertilizers are urgently needed.
Scientific application of organic fertilizers requires policies to guide everything. In recent years, with the guidance of the government and the promotion of media propaganda, the concept of applying organic fertilizer has produced a certain influence among farmers. Some farmers, especially those who grow cash crops such as vegetables, have begun to focus on the application of organic fertilizers. However, farmers also have unscientific ingredients in varying degrees in the application of organic fertilizer. According to Cao Yiping, a professor at the China Agricultural University of Agriculture and Economics, the following problems exist in the process of applying organic fertilizer to farmers:
First, blind fertilization. The amount of organic fertilizer used on vegetables is too concentrated. According to reports, every 10 acres of vegetables use 10 tons of organic fertilizer every year. In the case of such excessive application, the pollution problem caused by organic fertilizer is not inferior to that of fertilizer. Experts believe that the application of organic fertilizer must be moderate, and farmers need to be encouraged to apply organic fertilizer on food crops.
Second, collect problems. There are several types of organic fertilizers, one is straw, the other is feces, the third is green manure, and the fourth is natural. For the first two categories, it is very difficult to collect them for use. For example, in the manure treatment of dairy farms, because the amount of excretion is too large, it is required to have a large reserve for each container in the treatment facility. But in reality, many processing facilities eventually become furnishings due to insufficient container reserves.
Third, the labor problem. Labor is a crucial factor in the process of returning straw to the field and developing green manure. To increase the strength of straw returning, the straw must be chopped and buried deeply, followed by appropriate application of nitrogen fertilizer. Although this is a technical issue that needs attention, it is necessary to increase the input of labor. In the process of developing green manure, it is also necessary to increase the input of labor. For example, in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in winter, there are many land that has been idle for more than three months. If the farmers in the area immediately planted Ziyunying (a kind of green manure) after receiving the middle or late rice, it will not waste the land resources.
Experts said that in these major problems, how the state subsidizes and vigorously conducts technical guidance through special funds will be the key to cracking the "difficulties" of organic fertilizer application.
The development of organic and inorganic compound fertilizer industry and more pragmatic organic fertilizers also have problems in the process of industrialization. For the organic fertilizer produced by straw and manure, the industry believes that the industry can not be fully implemented according to standards, such as high temperature disinfection, fermentation, heavy metal treatment, degradation of harmful substances, etc., but the supervision of relevant regulatory authorities Also not in place, resulting in poor quality organic fertilizer flooding the market.
In fact, commercial organic fertilizers have made it difficult for farmers to accept them. Huang Lingfeng, director of the marketing department of Shandong Baoyuan Biological Co., Ltd. told reporters that the development of the organic fertilizer industry is very difficult now. At present, commercial organic fertilizers are mainly promoted in cash crops, but there is still little promotion in field crops. This is because the main role of organic fertilizers is to improve the quality of agricultural products and improve the conservation of soil, so the economic benefits are not like Fertilizers are as obvious, so farmers feel that increasing the investment in organic fertilizer is an additional burden. Wang Yongquan, director of the production technology department of Henan Lianhua MSG Co., Ltd., believes that the biggest problem of organic fertilizer industrialization is transportation. Organic fertilizers and organic-inorganic compound fertilizers do not enjoy preferential policies for railway transportation, which is more expensive than ordinary compound fertilizer. Doubled twice. He told reporters: "The freight per ton of organic fertilizer is 100 yuan higher than that of ordinary fertilizer. And if organic fertilizer is applied alone, the amount of farmers must be large to achieve a certain effect, so transportation will be a big deal. The problem." This invisibly increases the cost of organic fertilizer and reduces the market competitiveness of organic fertilizer.
Whether the farmers accept the ability or the cost, the ultimate reason is that the farmers value the direct benefits. Therefore, at present, various organic fertilizer enterprises are also mainly turning to the development of organic-inorganic compound fertilizers. Huang Lingfeng believes that the development of organic and inorganic compound fertilizers is relatively easy for farmers to accept. The fertilizers and fertilizers have the same direct effect, more comprehensive nutrition, and can also conserve soil and improve crop quality. The organic and inorganic fertilizers produced by the company are subject to The peasant's welcome. Wang Yongquan also said that the organic-inorganic compound fertilizer produced by Henan Lianhua MSG Co., Ltd. not only has a high content of organic matter, but also a high content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, so that the amount of farmers will be less, about 100 kg per mu. That's it. Therefore, in terms of industrialization, the development of organic and inorganic compound fertilizer industry may be more pragmatic.
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